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ART of DUTCH ATLAS of the 16th-17th CENTURIES AND ABRAHAM ORTELIUS

Among the unique cultural heritage preserved in the National Library of Russia, the maps and atlases occupies a special place. The most valuable portion of them includes Dutch engraved atlases of the 16th-17th centuries. This collection is the largest in the country, it is also regarded as one of the world's important by its size (over 400 items) and a wide scope of authors represented in it.

The extensive collection embraces works by members of various Dutch cartographic schools.

The most famous Antwerp School map-maker was Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598). He was the first of his contemporaries to gather extensive cartographic material and published the book of maps of uniform style Тheatrum orbis terrarum«Theatre of the World» in 1570. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum is considered the first true morden atlas. The Ortelius atlas was a huge success and was reprinted many times in different languages from 1571 to 1612. The holdings of our Library contains about 30 editions of this atlas, including the first edition of the atlas, its historical supplement Parergon and a number of smaller format publications of Тheatrum.

Another prominent cartographer of the 16th century Gerard de Jode (1508–1591) also lived and worked in Antwerp where he published his outstanding atlas in 1578. In 1593, his son Cornelis de Jode (1568-1600) issued the second edition of this atlas. It should be noted that there is only one extant copy of this atlas in Russia, which is stored at our Library.

The Library also holds the country's largest collection of the works of Gerardus Mercator (1512-1594). Mercator was the greatest reformer in mapmaking who invented a new map projection that was widely used for navigation. He considered the founder of modern scientific cartography (view also the online exhibition «Atlant of World Cartography»).

The collection of cartography houses over 20 volumes of different variants of the renowned «Atlas of Cities of the World» by George Braun (1541-1622) and Franz Hogenberg (1535-1590) , as well as numerous works of the largest mapping company of the 17th century, established by Willem Blaeu (1571-1638).

The Library possesses copies of the first ever printed maritime atlas by Lucas Janszoon Waghenaer (died in 1598) Spiegel der seefart... (Amsterdam , 1589) - 'Mariner's mirror' and his second atlas Thresorie ou cabinet... (Amsterdam, 1606). The role that Waghenaer played in the development of nautical chart-making is no less important than the contribution of Ortelius to the creation of the world atlas. Maritime atlases are also represented by works by Pieter Goos, Jan van Loon, Claes Vogt, Gerard van Kelen, etc.

These publications are remarkable milestones in the history of cartography, the extant editions are not only valuable sourses of contemporary geographic knowledge but also fine works of art. The Dutch cartographers of the 16th - 17th centuries made an unprecedented contribution to the art of map design.

The main role in this was played by a special artistic atmosphere of the Netherlands. In 16th - 17th centuries, the country experienced cultural revival that was combined with enthusiasm of different classes of people for geography and maps. The unique atmosphere made mapmaking a form of art. Cartography and visual arts were related activities:
- art and mapmaking interacted with each other: many cartographic elements, such as images, colour, and lettering, were shared with art;
- tools and methods used to produce maps and artistic works were very similar in printmaking and in mapmaking: copperplate engravings, which were hand coloured in later, required specific artistic skills;
- a significant number of both little-known and the most outstanding artists were involved in decorating maps;
- maps and art works were often performed by the same artists, engravers and publishers who worked for both areas;
- artists, engravers and mapmakers belonged to the same group of society that determined the development of culture in many areas.

The exhibited masterpieces of the outstanding cartographers of the Golden Age of Dutch Cartography are beautifully decorated. The vast majority of decorative details in atlases carry an important meaning, they supplement maps or express certain ideological views of the authors. The images are arranged in the following groups:

Marine Themes
Legends
Images of Rulers
Clothes
Allegories
Coats of Arms and Flags
Battles
Ancient Mythology
Bible Scenes
Vedute (detailed cityscapes)
Scenes from History
Portraits
Decorative Cartouches
Scenes from Everyday Life

Marine Themes

Map of the Pacific Ocean from the atlas «Theatre of the World». (Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1584. [P. 35].)
K 0-Mir 7 / 7
Electronic catalogue

An image in the center of the map depicts Ferdinand Magellan's (1480-1521) ship "Victoria" which completed the first circumnavigation of the world.
Marine Themes

Map of Iceland from the atlas «Theatre of the World».
(Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1584. [P.268].)
K 0-Mir 7/7
Electronic catalogue

The map shows fantastic sea animals in the surrounding waters.
Marine Themes

Fragment [p. 286] from the atlas Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1584.
K 0-Mir 7/7
Marine Themes

Fragment [p. 60] from the atlas Geographiae libri octo…. Amsterdam, 1605.
K 0-Mir 7/40
Electronic catalogue
Marine Themes

Fragment [p. 226] from the atlas Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1584.
K 0-Mir 7/7
Marine Themes

Fragment of page 8 from the atlas Spiegel der seefart... Amsterdam, 1589.
K 0-Evr 7/2
Electronic catalogue
Marine Themes

Fragment [p. 286] from the atlas Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1584.
K 0-Mir 7/7
Marine Themes

Fragment [p. 61] from the atlas Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1584.
K 0-Mir 7/7
Marine Themes

Fragment [p. 60] from the atlas Geographiae libri octo…. Amsterdam, 1605.
K 0-Mir 7/40
Electronic catalogue
Marine Themes

Fragment of p. 16 from the atlas Spiegel der seefart... Amsterdam, 1589.
K 0-Evr 7/2
Electronic catalogue
Marine Themes

Fragment [p. 296] from the atlas Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1584.
K 0-Mir 7/7
Marine Themes

Fragment of p. 12 from the atlas Spiegel der seefart... Amsterdam, 1589.
K 0-Evr 7/2
Electronic catalogue
Marine Themes

Fragment [p. 330] from the atlas Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1584.
K 0-Mir 7/7
Marine Themes

Fragment [p. 9] from the atlas Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1584.
K 0-Mir 7/7
Allegories

Theatrum orbis terrarum sive Atlas novus…Amsterdam, 1645-1650. Vol. I. F.A.
K 0-Mir 8/112
Electronic catalogue

Map of the World from the first volume of the atlas «Theatre of the World…», fol. А.
In the margins are allegorical images of the planets (Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) and the Sun; four elements (fire, air, water and land); seasons.
Allegories

Title page of the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. IV. Urbium praecipvarum totius mundi liber quartus 1588.
K 0-Mir 7/27.
Electronic catalogue

Images on the title page glorify the triumph of human values. A figure of Honor is shown at the top of the page. Permanence and Dignity can be seen below on the left and right. The bottom of the page is decorated with personifications of Peace, Justice, Prudence (Economy, Thrift) and Wisdom.
Allegories

Title page of the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. III. Urbium praecipvarum totius mundi liber tertius.1581.
K 0-Mir 7/27.
Electronic catalogue

Title page of the atlas is decorated with images that reflect the general idea that the city society is governed by justice, peace, safety. At the top of the page are placed figures of Peace and Consent. The female personification of Wealth and Power can be seen below on the left. In the center is Justice. Security (Safety) is depicted to the right. At the bottom of the sheet are figures symbolizing Society and Conformity to Rules and Laws.
Allegories

Title page of the atlas «The Nouveau Grand Sea Illuminating Torch…».
(Le Noveau et Grand Illuminant Flambeau de la mer…. Amsterdam, 1681-1683. Vol. V.).
K 0-Mir 8/161-5

The fifth volume contains charts of the coastal waters of Africa and Brazil.
In the center of the sheet is a symbolic image of the Pole Star used by navigators for finding directions. God of Commerce Mercury (Hermes), surrounded with natives, is shown below.
Scenes from Everyday Life

Tabula Russiae ex mandato Foedor Borissowits delineate. Amsterdam, 1634. K 0-Mosk 2/28
Electronic catalogue

Map of Russia. According to the heading of the map, it is based on a drawing by Fyodor Godunov, the son of Tsar Boris Godunov(1589–1605).
In 1613, it was first published as part of Mercator's «Аtlas sive cosmographicae…» (Amsterdam, 1619) by heirs of Jodocus Hondius (1563-1612).
Later, the map was repeatedly reproduced by other cartographers and placed in various atlases, like this copy of the map issued by Nicholas Visscher (1618-1679).
The map is decorated with views of the cities of Ivangorod, Arkhangelsk, the Moscow Kremlin, illustrations of a water mill and a Russian "black" bathhouse without chimney.
Scenes from Everyday Life

Fol.6 from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618.
Vol. 2. De praecipues totius urbibus liber secundus. 1575. (Reduced).
K 0-Mir 7/27

Bird's-eye View Plans of Conil de Frontera, Jerez de Frontera (Spain). They are notable for detailed images showing local people who work in traditional occupations: fishering and trading.
Scenes from Everyday Life

Fragment [p. 40] from the atlas Geographiae libri octo…. Amsterdam, 1605.
K 0-Mir 7/40
Shepherds/Herdsmen.
Electronic catalogue

Scenes from Everyday Life

Fragment [p. 52] from the atlas Geographiae libri octo…. Amsterdam, 1605.
K 0-Mir 7/40
Cannibals.
Electronic catalogue
Scenes from Everyday Life

Fragment fol. 6 from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618.
Vol.5. Urbium praecipvarum mundi theatrum quintum. Köln, [after 1598].
K 0-Mir 7/31
Electronic catalogue

The picture emphasizes the importance of Cadiz as a big fishing port, a processing center for seafood as well as the leading center of silver jewelry manufacturing and a trade center.
Scenes from Everyday Life

Fragment [p. 275] from the atlas Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1592. [Z.275].
K 0-Mir 7/8
Picnic.
Decorative Cartouches

Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1588. Vol. III. Urbium praecipvarum totius mundi liber tertius 1588. F.56.
K 0-Mir 7/28
Hand Colored Copper Engraving.
Electronic catalogue

Panorama of the Campania region of Italy from the «Atlas of Cities of the World». On the left you can see figures of Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598) and the Dutch artist Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1601). A richly decorated cartouche of fruits, among which are exotic black grapes grown in Campania, symbolizes an abundance of the region.
Decorative Cartouches

Fragment fol. 17 from the atlas from the atlas Spiegel der seefart... Amsterdam, 1589.
K 0-Evr 7/2
Electronic catalogue
Decorative Cartouches

Fragment fol. 4 from the atlas Spiegel der seefart... Amsterdam, 1589.
K 0-Evr 7/2
Electronic catalogue
Decorative Cartouches

Fragment [p. 42] from the atlas Geographiae libri octo…. Amsterdam, 1605.
K 0-Mir 7/40
Electronic catalogue
Decorative Cartouches

Fragment [p. 60] from the atlas Geographiae libri octo…. Amsterdam, 1605.
K 0-Mir 7/40
Electronic catalogue
Decorative Cartouches

Title page of the world atlas «Mirror of the World» (Speculum orbis terrae. Antverpen, [1593-1613].)
K 0-Mir 7/ 9
Electronic catalogue
Ancient Mythology

Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1592. [Z.275].
K 0-Mir 7/8
Panorama of the Vale of Tempe and Mount Olympus in Greece from the atlas «Theatre of the World». [p. 275]. The altar of Jupiter is depicted on the top of the mountain, the mythical home of the supreme gods. The temple of Jupiter is shown in the bottom left corner.
Ancient Mythology

Fragment of the title sheet of the atlas Le Noveau et Grand Illuminant Flambeau de la mer…. Amsterdam, 1681-1683.
K 0-Mir 8/161-2
Pantheon of Greek Gods.
Ancient Mythology

Fragment of the title sheet of the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. II.
De praecipues totius urbibus liber secundus. 1575.
K 0-Mir 7/28.
Electronic catalogue

The Penates and Lares are good household gods who protected the unity and welfare in the family.
Ancient Mythology

Fragment [p. 194] from the atlas Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1584.
K 0-Mir 7/7
Triton and mermaid.
Ancient Mythology

Fragment p. 5 from the atlas Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1584.
K 0-Mir 7/7
The Rape of Europa.
Ancient Mythology

Fragment p. [286] of the atlas Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1584.
K 0-Mir 7/7
Mermaids.
Scenes from History

Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, [ after 1598]. Vol. V. Urbium praecipvarum mundi theatrum quantum ( 1598). Fol.7.
K 0-Mir 7/31
Hand Colored Copper Engraving.
Plan of Seville from the «Atlas of Cities of the World». Vol.V. Fol.7.
Electronic catalogue

The picture depicts a scene of flagellation: convicted criminals were led through the whole city, and passing by people threw stones and sewage at them.
Scenes from History

Fragment fol. 4 (a plan of Granada) from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1588. Vol.I.
K 0-Mir 7/27
The expulsion of the Muslims from Spain.
Electronic catalogue
Scenes from History

Fragment fol. 43 (a plan of Venice) from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1588. Vol.I.
K 0-Mir 7/27
Grand Procession of the Doge of Venice.
Electronic catalogue
Scenes from History

Fragment fol. 24 (a plan of Sankt Polten) from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. VI. Theatrum praecipvarum totius mundi urbium liber sextus. 1617.
K 0-Mir 7/31
Electronic catalogue

The picture shows the suppression of the peasant anti-feudal uprising in Austria during 1595-1597.
Scenes from History

Fragment fol. 48 from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. II De praecipues totius urbibus liber secundus. 1575. K 0-Mir 7/28
Electronic catalogue

Fragment of a plan of Grodno, dating back to the Livonian War (1558-1583), features the meeting the Russian mission who arrived to attend the 1567 Seim assembled by Polish King Sigismund II Augustus (1520-1572).
Portraits

Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1588. Vol. I . F.51.
Plan of Constantinople (now Istanbul) from the «Atlas of Cities of the World». Vol.I. Fol.51.
K 0-Mir 7/27
Electronic catalogue

At the bottom of the plan are portraits of Turkish sultans, starting with the founder of the Ottoman dynasty - Osman (Ottoman, 1259–1324/1326).
Portraits

Fragment [fol. 6] from the atlas Geographiae libri octo…. Amsterdam, 1605.
Portrait of Gerard Mercator (1512-1594) after the engraving by Franz Hogenberg (1512-1594).
K 0-Mir 7/40
Electronic catalogue
Portraits

Fragment fol. 45 (a plan of the town of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska) from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. 6.
Theatrum praecipvarum totius mundi urbium liber sextus. 1617.
Portrait of Pope Paul V (1550-1621).
K 0-Mir 7/31
Electronic catalogue
Portraits

Fragment fol. 18 from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. 5. Urbium praecipvarum mundi theatrum quintum. Köln, [after 1598].
K 0-Mir 7/31
Electronic catalogue

Dolmen of La Pierre-Levée located near the town of Poitiers is remarkable for autographs of the great sixteenth century cartographers such as Mercator, Ortelius, Hogenberg, Braun who inscribed their names in the stone while travelling in France.
Portraits

Fragment fol. 55 Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. III.
Urbium praecipvarum totius mundi liber tertius (1588).
K 0-Mir 7/27
Electronic catalogue

Abraham Ortelius(1527-1598) and the Dutch artist J. Hufnagel (1542-1601). The engraving is inspired by memories of joint travels.
Vedute

Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1584. [Р.384].
K 0-Mir 7/7

View of the Escorial - an architectural complex consisting of a royal monastery, palace and residence of King Philip II of Spain – from the atlas «Theatre of the World». [P. 384].
Vedute

Fragment fol. 8 from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. V. Urbium praecipvarum mundi theatrum quintum. Köln, [after 1598].
K 0-Mir 7/31

Giralda tower - the symbol of Seville.
Vedute

Fragment fol. 61 from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. V. Urbium praecipvarum mundi theatrum quintum. Köln, [after 1598].
K 0-Mir 7/31

Villa of the Italian nobleman, cardinal and diplomat Alexander Farnese (1545-1592) in Caprarola (Italy).
Vedute

Fragment fol. 60 from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. V. Urbium praecipvarum mundi theatrum quintum. Köln, [after 1598].
K 0-Mir 7/31
St. Mark's Square in Venice.
Vedute

Fragment fol. 26 from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. IV. Urbium praecipvarum totius mundi liber quartus 1588.
K 0-Mir 7/27.
Electronic catalogue

Kronborg Castle is also widely known as "Elsinore" immortalized by William Shakespeare in his play Hamlet.
Bible Scenes

Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1588. Vol. I . F. 52.
Plan of Jerusalem from the «Atlas of Cities of the World». Vol. I. Fol. 52.
K 0-Mir 7/28
Electronic catalogue

The picture in the bottom left corner illustrates the biblical story about Moses' Ascent of Mount Sinai where the prophet received from God the two stone tablets inscribed with the Ten Commandments.
To the right is shown a high priest (Moses' brother Aaron became the first chief priest, according to the Bible). The vestments worn by high priests were very rich and elaborate, so the elements that make up these garments are described in detail in the text accompanying the illustration.
Bible Scenes

Fragment [p. 144] from the atlas Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1584.
K 0-Mir 7/7
Bible Scenes: the birth, crucifixion and resurrection of Christ.
Bible Scenes

Fragment fol. 6 (a plan of the city San Sebastian) from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln,1588. Vol. I.
K 0-Mir 7/28
Electronic catalogue

San Sebastian (?-288) is a Roman legionary who believed in the teachings of Christ and was executed for it.
Bible Scenes

Fragment fol. V from the atlas Abrahami Ortelii Theatri orbis terrarium parergon… Antverpen, 1624.
K 0-Mir 7/39.
Electronic catalogue

Paul’s conversion to Christianity on the Damascus road when he was called to be an apostle.
Bible Scenes

Fragment fol. V from the atlas Abrahami Ortelii Theatri orbis terrarium parergon… Antverpen, 1624.
K 0-Mir 7/39.
Electronic catalogue

Scene of the Apostle Paul's shipwreck on Malta.
The Apostle Paul miraculously escaped the death during his journey. Now, the Feast of St. Paul’s Shipwreck is a public holiday celebrated in Malta.
Clothes

Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1588. Vol. II. F. 47
K 0-Mir 7/28
Electronic catalogue

Plan of Moscow from volume II of the «Atlas of Cities of the World», fol. 47.
The garments of Russian soldiers are fairly accurately depicted at the bottom of the plan.
Clothes

Fragment of p. 16 from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. V. Urbium praecipvarum mundi theatrum quintum. Köln, [after 1598].
K 0-Mir 7/31
Electronic catalogue
Clothes

Fragment of p. 37 from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618.
Vol.V. Urbium praecipvarum mundi theatrum quintum. Köln, [after 1598].
K 0-Mir 7/31
Electronic catalogue
Clothes

Fragment of p. 2 from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. VI.
Theatrum praecipvarum totius mundi urbium liber sextus. 1617.
K 0-Mir 7/31
Electronic catalogue
Clothes

Fragment of the title page of the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. V.
Urbium praecipvarum mundi theatrum quintum. Köln, [after 1598].
K 0-Mir 7/31
Electronic catalogue
Images of Rulers

Folios Bb, Cc depicting the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire from the atlas Speculum orbis terrae. Antverpen, [1593-1613]. Fols. Bb, Cc.
K 0-Mir 7/9
Electronic catalogue
Legends

Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1570. Fol. 46.
K 0-Mir 7/11
Electronic catalogue

Map of Russia from the atlas «Theatre of the World». Fol. 46.
The map was compiled by the English merchant and diplomat Anthony Jenkinson, the British Ambassador in Russia. The well-studied European territory of the country is shown in detail.
The part of the map representing the region beyond the Ural Mountains is mostly filled in by pictures and texts on various legends and beliefs, because this territory was known much worse.
For instance, the map contains illustrations featuring worship of the Golden Woman (the female idol of the northen people), tribes who worship the sun etc.
A portrait of Tsar Ivan the Terrible is located in the upper left coner.
Legends

Fragment p. xlij from the atlas Abrahami Ortelii Theatri orbis terrarium parergon… Antverpen, 1624.
K 0-Mir 7/39.
The Golden Fleece
Electronic catalogue
Legends

Fragment p. 12 from the atlas Speculum orbis terrae. Antverpen, [1593-1613].
K 0-Mir 7/9
Electronic catalogue

Fragment shows a dragon on the territory of the unknown southern continent.
Legends

Fragment of the reverse side of the title sheet of the atlas Abrahami Ortelii Theatri orbis terrarium parergon… Antverpen, 1624.
K 0-Mir 7/39.
Gryphon.
Electronic catalogue
Coats of Arms and Flags

Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. III. Urbium praecipvarum totius mundi liber tertius (1588). F.23.
K 0-Mir 7/27
Electronic catalogue

Fol. 23 [Coats of Arms and Flags of cities, religious leaders and noble families from the province of Hainaut] from volume III of the «Atlas of Cities of the World». The central image at the top of the page is the Coats of Arms of the Holy Roman Empire and the province of Hainaut (now the province in Belgium).
Coats of Arms and Flags

Fragments of fol. 3 from of the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. III.
Urbium praecipvarum totius mundi liber tertius.1581.
K 0-Mir 7/27
Electronic catalogue

The coat of arms of the Great Britain and the coats of arms of the Earls of Chester are depicted on the left. On the right are the arms of Bishop of Chester and a former coat of arms of the Earldom of Chester.
Coats of Arms and Flags

Fragments of fol. 42 from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. VI.
Theatrum praecipvarum totius mundi urbium liber sextus. 1617.
K 0-Mir 7/31
Electronic catalogue

Image of the patron saint of Krakow St. Florian, armorials of the city of Krakow, Polish kings (from the House of Vasa), the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Coats of Arms and Flags

Fragment fol. 35 from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. VI.
Theatrum praecipvarum totius mundi urbium liber sextus. 1617.
K 0-Mir 7/31
Electronic catalogue

Coats of arms of the bishop of Bamberg, Bavaria and the city of Bamberg.
Coats of Arms and Flags

Fragment fol. 21 from the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. II. De praecipues totius urbibus liber secundus. 1575.
K 0-Mir 7/28
Electronic catalogue

A fimale figure (Coat of Arms of Maastricht), holding the coats of arms of the bishop and the Kingdom of Spain.
Battles

Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. VI. Theatrum praecipvarum totius mundi urbium liber sextus (1617) F. 11
K 0-Mir 7/31
Electronic catalogue

Plan of Ostend (now located in Belgium) from volume VI of the of the «Atlas of Cities of the World», fol. 11.
The plan features one of the most dramatic events in the history of the city - a three-year siege of Ostend by the Spanish troops wich lasted from 1601 to 1604 and resulted in a Spanish victory.
The coat of arms of Ostend is in the upper left corner.
Battles

Fragment fol. 35 from volume VI of the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. VI. Theatrum praecipvarum totius mundi urbium liber sextus. 1617.
K 0-Mir 7/31
Electronic catalogue

Fragment the city of Pápa which was repeatedly besieged by Turkish troops. Probably, it depicts the events of 1597 when the city was liberated from the Turkish invaders, and the survivors of the Turks were brutally executed (impaled).
Battles

Fragment fol. 57 from volume II of the «Atlas of Cities of the World» (Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. II. De praecipues totius urbibus liber secundus. 1575.
K 0-Mir 7/28
Electronic catalogue

Map of the island Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, through which the dividing line between the Spanish and Portuguese Possessions on the North African coast passed in the 16th century.
Battless

Fragment fol. 58 from volume II of the atlas Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Köln, 1572-1618. Vol. II. De praecipues totius urbibus liber secundus. 1575.
K 0-Mir 7/28
Electronic catalogue

The plan of Tunis shows the battle between the troops of the Spanish King Philip II, protecting the city, and the Turkish military forces under the command of Sultan Selim in 1574.
Battless

Fragment fol. 12 from the atlas Speculum orbis terrae. Antverpen, [1593-1613].
K 0-Mir 7/9
El. Catalogue

Skirmish between Europeans and natives in Brazil.
Legends

Maps of North America (Quivira) and New Guinea from the world atlas «Mirror of the World».
(Speculum orbis terrae. Antverpen, [1593-1613]. F.12.)
0 K-Mir 7/9
Electronic Catalogue

1. The mythical Quivira that never existed in reality was believed to be located in North America. According to legends, the inhabitants of this incredibly rich country use only gold and silver kitchen utensils.
2. The map shows the island of New Guinea and part of the unknown southern continent inhabited by monsters.
Portraits

Cover sheet of the maritime atlas «Light of the Polar Star or Sea Atlas» (Klaer-Lichtende Noort-Star оste Zee Atlas. Amsterdam, 1668.)
К 0-Mir 8/160

On the right and left there are portraits of Pedro de Medina, the author of the book «The Art of Navigation» (1545), and the English mathematician Edward Wright noted for his book «Certaine Errors in Navigation» (1599).
Ancient Mythology

Cover Sheet of the Marine Atlas (Zee Atlas. Amsterdam, [1680])
K 0-Mir 8/159

On the right there is the figure of Atlant holding a celestial globe on his shoulders.


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