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Imaginary Lands on Maps

Non-existent Mountains and Lakes


Riphean Mountains

The Riphean Mountains are mountains giving rise to the main rivers of Scythia: the Don and the Volga. Ancient greeks placed the Riphean mountains on the border of Scythia and Hyperborea, where was the home of the North Wind Boreas.

In the II century AD, Claudius Ptolemy summarized historical and geographical facts known in his time, which then were used by many medieval map-makers.

Various scientific writers applied the term to the Ural Mountains, the Caucasus, the Central Asian mountains (Tien Shan) and so forth.

Lake Parime

Lake Parime (Parime, Pаrima) is a fabled lake in South America.

The capital city of the mythical Eldorado Manoa was believed to be located on its shores, between the Amazon and the Orinoco. According to legend, all the lake bottom was strewn with precious stones and gold which the Indians sacrificed to the gods.

The Parime had been shown on maps up to the early 19th century when Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), during his expedition of 1799-1804, proved that there were no lakes in the Orinoco basin, and rumors about its existence could be generated by extensive flooding of the rivers.


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Septentrionalium Terrarum descriptio. From the atlas: Atlas sive Cosmographicæ Meditationes…Duisburg, 1595. P. 1.
Map of the North Pole from the world atlas of Gerardus Mercator "Atlas or cosmographical meditations upon the creation of the universe, and the universe as created", Duisburg, 1595.
One of the four polar islands has an inscription, 'It is home to the pygmies' that some sources interpreted as an indication of the legendary Hyperborea.
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Septentrionalium regionum descrip. From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1570. P. 45.
Map of the Scandinavia from Abraham Ortelius' atlas «Theatre of the World», published in Antwerp in 1570.
One of the four polar islands has an inscription, 'It is home to the pygmies' that some sources interpreted as an indication of the legendary Hyperborea.
K 0-Mir 7/11
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Quivirae regnum, cum aliis versus Boream. Novae Gvineae Forma & Situs. From the atlas: Speculum orbis terrӕ. Antverpea, 1593-1613. P. 12.
Maps of part of North America (Quivira) and New Guinea from the world atlas Gerard de Jode «Mirror of the World». Antwerp, 1593-1613. P.12.
The map of Quivira contains a text in which residents of the area are compared with the Tatars – a reference to the theory that North America was part of Asia and was populated by immigrants from Asia.
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Typus orbis terrarum. From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1570. P. 1.
World map from Abraham Ortelius' atlas «Theatre of the World», published in Antwerp in 1570
K 0-Mir 7/11
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Orbis terrae compendiosa descriptio. From the atlas: Atlas sive Cosmographicæ Meditationes…Duisburg, 1595. [P. 1].
World map from the world atlas of Gerardus Mercator "Atlas or cosmographical meditations upon the creation of the universe, and the universe as created", Duisburg, 1595.
K 0-Mir 7/10
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Nova totius terrarum orbis geographica ac hydrographica tabula. Auct. Guilj. Blaeuw.
From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum, Sive Atlas novus …Vol. 1. Amsterdam: J. G. Blaeu, 1645.
World map from Vol.1 of Joan Blaeu's atlas, published in Amsterdam in 1645
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L’ Amerique Septentrionale Suivant les Nouvelles observations de mess-rs de l’ Academie Royale des Sciences etc, augmentees de nouveau. Avec privil.. - Leide : chez Pierre van der Aa, 16…?].
Map of North America.
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Americae Pars Borealis, Florida, Baccalaos, Canada, Corterealis…From the atlas: Speculum orbis terrӕ. Antverpiae, 1593-1613. P. 11.
Map of part of North America from the world atlas Gerard de Jode «Mirror of the World». Antwerp, 1593-1613. P.11.
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Orbis terrae compendiosa descriptio. From the atlas: Atlas sive Cosmographicæ Meditationes…Duisburg, 1595. [P. 1].
World map from the world atlas of Gerardus Mercator "Atlas or cosmographical meditations upon the creation of the universe, and the universe as created", Duisburg, 1595.
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L’ Amerique Septentrionale. M. Ogier fecit.. - S.l., [late 17th cent.]. Map of North America.
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L’ Amerique Septentrionale Suivant les Nouvelles observations de mess-rs de l’ Academie Royale des Sciences etc, augmentees de nouveau. Avec privil.. - Leide : chez Pierre van der Aa, 16…?].
Map of North America.
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Americae Pars Borealis, Florida, Baccalaos, Canada, Corterealis…From the atlas: Speculum orbis terrӕ. Antverpiae, 1593-1613. P. 12.
Map of part of North America from the world atlas Gerard de Jode «Mirror of the World». Antwerp, 1593-1613. P. 11.
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Orbis terrae compendiosa descriptio. From the atlas: Atlas sive Cosmographicæ Meditationes…Duisburg, 1595. [P. 1].
World map from the world atlas of Gerardus Mercator "Atlas or cosmographical meditations upon the creation of the universe, and the universe as created", Duisburg, 1595.
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Americae nova tabula. Auct. Guiljelmo Blaeuw. From the atlas: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, sive Atlas Novus.
Vol. 2. Amsterdam : Apud Iohanem Guiljelmi F. Blaeu, 1645.
Map of North and South America from Vol. 2 of Joan Blaeu's atlas, published in Amsterdam in 1645
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Americaу Pars Meridionalis. – Amstelodami: J. Janssoniy, [after 1630 Map of South America
From Johannes Janssonius' atlas, published in Amsterdam in 1630.
On the shore of Lakes Parime, there is an inscription "Manoa, or El Dorado.
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Americae nova tabula. Auct. Guiljelmo Blaeuw.
From the atlas: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, sive Atlas Novus. Vol. 2. Amsterdam: J/ G. Blaeu, 1645.
Map of North and South America from Vol. 2 of Joan Blaeu's atlas, published in Amsterdam in 1645
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Le Perou et le cours de la Riv.re Amazone. Par N.Sanson d’Abbeville Geographe ord.-re du Roy. [Paris, 1683].
On the shore of Lake Parime (Parime) is an inscription «Manoa, or Eldorado».
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America Meridionalis Concinnata juxta Observayiones… Per G. de l'Isle. Augustæ Vindel, Vol. C. Lotter, [1770].
Map of South America, compiled by G. Delisle in 1700, and reprinted by the Lotter publishing house after 1760
The legendary country Eldorado is marked on the area called Terra Firma («mainland province» of Spain in contrast to the neighboring island colonies of Spain), present-day part of Venezuela and Colombia.
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[Madagascar, North-East Africa, Red Sea, Arabia] from the facsimile of the Atlas Universal.
Diogo Homem, [1565. Barselona, 2000. Map of 8.]
The map shows the east coast of Africa. A figure of the Christian king [Prester John], often shown on the maps of the 15th-16th centuries, is placed in the center, in what is now Ethiopia.
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Russia cum confinÿs. Per Gerardum Mercatorem. Cum privilegio. [Amsterdam, 1633].
Map of Russia from the atlas of G. Mercator – J. Hondius, Amsterdam, 1633.
One of the earliest map Russia, created by foreign cartographers. On the territory of the Asian part of Russia, there is depicted Lucomoria.
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Novissima Russiae Tabula….. Authore Isaaco Massa. Amstelodami, Hen. Hondius, sumptibus Joannis Janssonii. - Amstelodami : Hen. Hondius, sumptibus Joannis Janssonii, [1644]
Map of Russia From the atlas мира J. Hondius- J.Janssonius, Amsterdam, 1644.
One of the earliest map Russia, created by foreign cartographers. On the territory of the Asian part of Russia, there is depicted Lucomoria.
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La Russie Blanche ou Moscovie Divisée suivant l’Etendu des Royaumes, Duchés, Principautés etc.
Presenté à Monseigneur le Duc de Bourgogne par… H.Jaillot. - Paris, 1695.
One of the earliest map Russia, created by foreign cartographers. On the territory of the Asian part of Russia, there is depicted Lucomoria.
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Carte Tartarie. Dressée sur les Relations de plusieurs Voyageurs de differentes Nations et sur quelques observations qui ont été faites dans ce pais là Par Guillaume de l'Isle Avec Privil. Amsterdam, chez J. Covens et C. Mortier [1720?].
Map of Tartary, compiled by G. Delisle using materials of many travelers, and published in Amsterdamе in ca. 1720. In the northern part of the map , there is an inscription «Lukomoria».
K 1-Ross 2/97
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Septentrionalium Terrarum descriptio.
From the atlas: Atlas sive Cosmographicæ Meditationes…Duisburg, 1595. P. 1.
Map of Noth Pole from the world atlas of Gerardus Mercator "Atlas or cosmographical meditations upon the creation of the universe, and the universe as created", Duisburg, 1595.
Island Friesland is shown on the map at the bottom, on the left of Iceland, and is given an supplementary map on the top left.
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Typus orbis terrarum. From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1570. P. 1.
World map from Abraham Ortelius' atlas «Theatre of the World», Antwerp, 1570.
K 0-Mir 7/11
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Septentrionalium regionum descrip. From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1570. P. 45.
Map of Scandinavia from Abraham Ortelius' atlas «Theatre of the World», Antwerp, 1570.
K 0-Mir 7/11
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Nova totius terrarum orbis geographica ac hydrographica tabula. Auct. Guiljelmo Blaeuw.
From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum, Sive Atlas novus …Vol. 1. Amsterdam: J. G. Blaeu, 1645.
World map from Vol.1 of Joan Blaeu's atlas, published in Amsterdam in 1645
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Typus orbis terrarum. From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1570. P. 1.
World map from Abraham Ortelius' atlas «Theatre of the World», Antwerp, 1570.
K 0-Mir 7/11
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Septentrionalium regionum descrip. From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1570. P. 45.
Map of Scandinavia from Abraham Ortelius' atlas «Theatre of the World», Antwerp, 1570.
K 0-Mir 7/11
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Septentrionalium regionum descrip. From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1570. P. 45.
Map of Scandinavia from Abraham Ortelius' atlas «Theatre of the World», Antwerp, 1570. Replica.
K 0-Mir 7/11
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Nova totius terrarum orbis geographica ac hydrographica tabula. Auct. Guiljelmo Blaeuw.
From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum, Sive Atlas novus …Vol. 1. Amsterdam: J. G. Blaeu, 1645.
World map from Vol.1 of Joan Blaeu's atlas, published in Amsterdam in 1645
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[Carta marine… Anno 1539,… Olaus Magnus…] Romæ, Antony Lafrery, 1572.
Replica. «Carta Marina» is one of the earliest and most reliable historical maps of North Europe, created by the Swedish church figure, diplomat and writer Olaus Magnus. He used as personal travel notes, cards Scandinavian sailors and maps from Ptolemy's Geography as the sources for the map. Besides a detailed picture of geographic features, the map contains more than 100 miniatures depicting real and imaginary animals, local customs and costumes, historical events, and fabulous lands, including - the island Thule (Tile).
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Septentrionalium regionum descrip. From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1570. P. 45.
Map of Scandinavia from Abraham Ortelius' atlas «Theatre of the World», Antwerp, 1570.
K 0-Mir 7/11
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Septentrionalium Terrarum descriptio.
From the atlas: Atlas sive Cosmographicæ Meditationes…Duisburg, 1595. P. 1.
Map of North Pole from the world atlas of Gerardus Mercator "Atlas or cosmographical meditations upon the creation of the universe, and the universe as created", Duisburg, 1595.
In the center of the map, there was dipicted the Black Rock (Rupes Nigra) located at the North Pole and having magnetic properties, according to Mercator, which has magnetic properties. In addition, based on his studies of the magnetic poles and the researches of other scientists, Gerardus Mercator mapped two islands indicated as magnetic: rocky one and a very small isle shown as a circle.
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The latest map of Eastern Siberia, compiled in 1816. [Without place], 1816.
On the map, in the Arctic Ocean, there is an inscription, 'Land seen by Sannikov'
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Map of Asiatic part of Russia and Turkestan region. To the project of the South-Siberian Railroad Orsk-Pavlodar-Barnaul by the engineer P.I. Rashevsky, dated to 1913. [Without place], 1913.
The map shows Sannikov Land in the Arctic Ocean.
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Map of polar regions of the Asian and American continents. Compiled by Prince Alexey Dolgoruky according to the testimony of clairvoyants. [St. Petersburg], Lithography of J. Lapping, 1852.
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Illustration to the article: B.S. Lukshin. Arctic knot of military-political relations between US and Russia / Electronic resource
Pacific Ocean. South part. From the atlas: Marine Atlas. Editor-in-chief Professor Fleet Admiral I.S. Isakov. Vol.1. Navigational and Geographical. [P.6 ], Naval General Staff, 1950-1963.
The map shows Reef Maria Teresa in the Pacific Ocean.
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Octava Europe Tabula. From the atlas: [Collection of maps of Claudius Ptolemy. Rome, 1508. Map 8.].
Eight map of Europe [Collection of maps of Claudius Ptolemy. Rome, 1508].
The map shows the area between the Baltic Sea (with parts of Scandinavia) and the Black Sea
(with the Crimean peninsula). The legendary Riphean Mountains are shown on the territory of the European Sarmatia.
K 0-Mir 7/345
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America Pars Meridionalis. – Amstelodami: J. Janssoniy, [after 1630].
Map of South America, compiled for Johannes Janssonius' atlas published in Amsterdam in 1630.
K 0-Uam 2/21
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Americae nova tabula. Auct. Guiljelmo Blaeuw. From the atlas: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, sive Atlas Novus.
Vol. 2. Amsterdam : Apud Iohanem Guiljelmi F. Blaeu, 1645-1650.
Map of North and South America from Vol.2 Willem Blaeu's atlas.
K 0-Mir 8/112_2
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Typus orbis terrarum. From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1570. P. 1.
World map from Abraham Ortelius' atlas «Theatre of the World», Antwerp, 1570.
«Terra Australis Nondum Cognita» is shown at the bottom of the map.
K 0-Mir 7/11
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Orbis terrae compendiosa descriptio. From the atlas: Atlas sive Cosmographicæ Meditationes…Duisburg, 1595. [P. 1].
World map from the world atlas of Gerardus Mercator "Atlas or cosmographical meditations upon the creation of the universe, and the universe as created", Duisburg, 1595.
«Terra Australis» is shown at the bottom of the map.
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Nova totius terrarum orbis geographica ac hydrographica tabula. Auct. Guiljelmo Blaeuw.
From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum, Sive Atlas novus …Vol. 1. Amsterdam: J. G. Blaeu, 1645.
World map from Vol.1 of Joan Blaeu's atlas, published in Amsterdam in 1645
«Magallanica. Terra Australis Incognita» is shown at the bottom of the map and on the right of the supplementary map.
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Tartariae sive magni chami regni. From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antverpen, 1570. [P. 47]
Map of Tartary or the Kingdom of Great Ham from Abraham Ortelius' atlas «Theatre of the World», Antwerp, 1570.
The map shows the north-eastern part of Asia and the north-western part of America, separated by the Strait Aniane.
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Quivirae regnum cum aliis versus Boream. Nоvae Gvineae Forma & Situs.
From the atlas: Speculum orbis terrӕ. Antverpen, 1593-1613. P. 12.
Maps of part of North America (Quivira) and New Guinea from the world atlas Gerard de Jode
«Mirror of the World». Antwerp, 1593-1613. P. 12.
K 0-Mir 7/9
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Orbis terrae compendiosa descriptio. From the atlas: Atlas sive Cosmographicæ Meditationes…Duisburg, 1595. [P. 1].
World map from the world atlas of Gerardus Mercator "Atlas or cosmographical meditations upon the creation of the universe, and the universe as created", Duisburg, 1595.
K 0-Mir 7/10
Veiw in the Digital Library
Nova totius terrarum orbis geographica ac hydrographica tabula. Auct. Guiljelmo Blaeuw.
From the atlas: Theatrum orbis terrarum, Sive Atlas novus …Vol. 1. Amsterdam: J. G. Blaeu, 1645.
World map from Vol.1 of Joan Blaeu's atlas, published in Amsterdam in 1645
K 0-Mir 8/112_1
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